PARTNER COUNTRIES

VISION
FOR 2030

Argentina

Kenya

Indonesia

Thailand

ARGENTINA

REDUCE EMISSIONS BY:

18%

(vs. BAU in 2030, unconditional target)

37%

(vs. BAU in 2030, conditional on international support)

KEY MITIGATION SECTORS:

Energy

Agriculture

Transport

Argentina was the first country to submit a revised NDC to the UNFCCC in November 2016. Under the revised NDC, Argentina has an absolute emissions target for 2030 of 483 MtCO2e or 369 MtCO2e conditional on international support. The diversification of the energy matrix and the promotion of efficient energy use are two central policy objectives to reduce emissions and capture associated benefits. Other sectors with significant mitigation potential are the agriculture, land use and transport sectors. In October 2019, the Argentinean people elected a new government led by President Alberto Fernández. In December 2019, the new government adopted a Climate Change Law that had been drafted under the previous government and that provides a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation action in Argentina. A number of policies have been put in place over the past five years to reach the mandatory target of 20% of renewable energy in the electricity mix by 2025, such as the Biofuels Law, the Renewable Energy Law and the support scheme RenovAr.

KENYA

REDUCE EMISSIONS BY:

30%

(vs. BAU in 2030, conditional on international support)

KEY MITIGATION SECTOR:

Energy

Under the current NDC, Kenya aims to reduce emissions by 30% relative to a BAU scenario of 143 Mt CO2e by 2030. Kenya strives to be a newly industrialised middle-income country by 2030, as outlined in its key development strategy ‘Vision 2030’. This development is expected to increase emissions from all sectors, but by far the most BAU emissions growth will come from the electricity sector, not least because today the majority of Kenyans rely on (unsustainable) biomass for their energy needs, and electricity demand will increase alongside development. The current electricity mix is mainly clean (85% of 2019 system capacity provided by geothermal, hydro, wind and solar) with deliberate efforts by the government towards enhancing clean energy development, in particular geothermal, deployment of which has grown very rapidly in recent years. Kenya however also has domestic fossil fuel resources in the form of coal and oil, and plans are being made to exploit both sources, posing a challenge to its clean development pathway. The relative benefits of Kenya exploiting its large endowment of renewable energy resources versus domestic (and imported) fossil fuels need to be understood and communicated to help build support for low emissions development among key public and private actors.

INDONESIA

REDUCE EMISSIONS BY:

29%

(vs. BAU in 2030, unconditional target)

41%

(vs. BAU in 2030, conditional on international support)

KEY MITIGATION SECTORS:

Energy

Waste Management

Under the current NDC, Indonesia aims to reduce emissions by 29% from BAU in 2030 or by 41% conditional on international support. The NDC highlights three key areas for mitigation activity: reduced emissions from Land-use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF); the development of clean energy sources; and improved waste management. The projected BAU emission level for 2030 is 2.9 Gt CO2e, making Indonesia a crucial actor in the international mitigation challenge. LULUCF is currently the largest source of emissions, but energy is expected to surpass it as the largest emitting sector by 2030, and the current power sector development plans show a large role for coal-based generation, driving continued emission growth. Increasing the role of clean energy is thus extremely important from a mitigation perspective and has been established as a national policy
objective, with at least a 23% share from renewable sources mandated in 2025. With domestic coal resources, a strong pro-coal lobby, and rapidly growing energy demand, the benefits of low carbon development pathways need to be effectively communicated.

THAILAND

REDUCE EMISSIONS BY:

20%

(vs.BAU in 2030, conditional target)

25%

(vs. BAU in 2030, conditional on international support)

KEY MITIGATION SECTORS:

Energy

Transport

Thailand aims to reduce emissions by 20% from BAU by 2030 and could increase this target up to 25% with international support. The energy and transport sectors play a prominent role in Thailand`s domestic efforts, while their NDC also identifies the need to address issues beyond mitigation, such as energy security, and economic and environmental concerns. Moving forward, national ambitions need to be translated into feasible sectorial strategies and implementation plans, with broad stakeholder buy-in and in line with national development priorities. Thailand has a number of supporting plans and strategies already developed, but not all the key public and private actors are sufficiently supportive of these plans and see the benefits of aligning sector level ambition with overall NDC ambition.

Thailand was a partner country under A2A Phase I.